Reported Speech in English however is a subject that I understand something about. This video for that reason should matter and of interest to you.
When to use Reported Speech?
- We use reported speech to report what someone has said earlier.
- We usually change the pronouns and tenses:
- “I’m from India”, she said. (DS)
- She said that she was from India. (IDS)
- Say and tell are the most common reporting verbs for statements. Notice how they are used:
- Say: (to someone) (that): She said to her friend that she would be late.
- tell someone (that): He told her that he didn’t mind.
- Say and tell can come before or after direct speech:
They said, ‘We have a new car. We’re very happy with it.
- However, they usually come before reported speech:
They said that they had a new car. They told us that they were very happy with it.
Back Shifting of Tenses
After a past tense reporting verb like said, the tense of the verb also changes:
We change the tense of the verb only by one shift.
- Simple present = Simple Past.
- Simple Past = Simple Past or Past perfect.
- Present Continuous = Past Continuous.
- Past Continuous = Past Perfect.
- Present Perfect = Past Perfect.
- am/is/are going to = was/were + going to
- Modal verbs: shall/will = would
- Modal verbs: can/may = could/might
Back shifting of time/place words
- Tomorrow = the following day.
- Yesterday = the day before, or the previous day.
- This = that.
- These = those.
- Today = that day.
- Tonight = that night.
- Last night = the night before, or the previous night.
- (Direct Speech) Sara said: “I want to go shopping”.
(Convert it into RS) Sara said that she wanted to go shopping.
- (Direct Speech) Sami said to Sara: “I am playing video games”.
(Convert it into RS) Sami told Sara that he was playing video games.
- (Direct Speech) Sami said: “I graduated 2 years ago”.
(Convert it into RS) Sami said that he graduated 2 years ago. Or he had graduated 2 years ago.
- (Direct Speech) Sara said to Sami: “I have visited Paris”.
(Convert it into RS) Sara told Sami that she had visited Paris.
- (Direct Speech) Sara said: “I will sleep early”.
(Convert it into RS) Sara said that she would sleep early.
- (Direct Speech) My mother said to my brothers: “You have to clean up your room”.
(Convert it into RS) His mother told his brothers that they had to clean up their room.
Reported Speech Question Form
- Reported questions have the same changes in pronouns, time/place words and tenses as reported statements:
- ‘Did you enjoy the film? I said to them. ->
- I asked them if they had enjoyed the film.
- A common reporting verb in questions is ask.
- When we report a Yes/No question, we use (if) after the reporting verb:
- Do you like jazz? -> He asked if I liked jazz.
- In question form we replace (said that), with asked & we use conjunction if or weather.
- (Direct Speech) Mahi said to me: “Do you like pizza?”
(Convert it into RS) Mahi asked me if I liked pizza.
- (Direct Speech) Tom said to Bill: “Have you finished your homework?”
(Convert it into RS) Tom asked Bill whether he had finished his homework.
- (Direct Speech) Sally said to me: “Are you going to sleep?”
(Convert it into RS) Sally asked me if I was going to sleep.
- (Direct Speech) Sami asked Maher: “Did you enjoy the movie?”
(Convert it into RS) Sami asked Maher weather he enjoyed the movie.
Reported Speech WH Question Form
- When we report a Wh-question, we use the wh-question word as a conjunction:
- ‘Where did you stay?’ Megan asked him.
- Megan asked him where he had stayed.
- We do not use a question mark (?) in reported questions.
- (Direct Speech) Ali asked: “what time is it?”
(Convert it into RS) Ali asked what time it was.
- (Direct Speech) Hasan said to Sara: “How can I make some coffee?”
(Convert it into RS) Hasan asked Sara how she could make some coffee.
- (Direct Speech) The teacher asked the students: “Which answer is correct?”
(Convert it into RS) The teacher asked the students which answer was correct.
- (Direct Speech) My father said to me: “What are you doing now?”
(Convert it into RS) My father asked me what I was doing yesterday.
Reported Speech exercise & practice
- My wife said: I will teach my daughters the Arabic language.
My wife said that she would teach our daughters the Arabic language.
- One of my daughters said: “My teacher shouted at me this morning”.
One of my daughters said that his teacher had shouted at her that morning.
- My daughters said to their mother: “We will not go to school tomorrow”.
My daughters told their mother that they would not go to school the following day.
- My sister asked, “When will you visit me?”
My sister asked when I would visit her.
- My wife wanted to know: “What time will you arrive home?”
My wife asked me what time I would come home.
- My mother asked my father: “How can we call our children?”
My mother asked my father how they could call their children.
- My wife said: “Did you have breakfast this morning?”
My wife asked if I had breakfast that morning.
- My daughter said to my wife: “do we have bananas to eat?”
My daughter asked her mother If we had bananas to eat.
- Our teacher said to us: “Are you doing your homework well?”
Our teacher asked weather we were doing our homework well.
- “I’m enjoying my new job.” James said.
James said that he was enjoying his new job.
- My father isn’t well.
Julia said that her father wasn’t well.
- “We’re going to buy a house.” Sarah and Maria said.
Sarah and Maria said that they were going to buy a house.
- “I have to leave early.” Peter said.
Peter said that he had to leave early
- “My sister has gone to Australia.” He said.
Tom said that his sister had gone to Australia.
- Kate said, “I can’t find a job.”
Kate said that she couldn’t find a job.
- Steve said, “I’ll phone you.”
Steve said that he would phone me.
- Rachel said, “I don’t like my job.”
Rachel said that she didn’t like her job.
- She said, “My son doesn’t like school.”
She said that her son didn’t like school.
- Michel said, “You look tired.”
Michel said that I looked tired.
- he said, “I’ve lost my watch.”
He said that he had lost his watch.
- She said, “I’m very busy.”
She said that she was very busy.
- She said, “I can’t go to the party.”
She said that she couldn’t go to the party.
- He said, “I have to go out.”
He said that he had to go out.
- He said, “I’m learning Indian.”
He said that he was learning Indian.
- She said, “I don’t feel very well.”
She said that she didn’t feel very well.
- They said. “We’ll be home late.”
They said that they would be home late.
- She said. “I’ve just come back from holiday.”
She said that she had just come back from holiday.
- She said, “I’m going to buy a guitar.”
She said that she was going to buy a guitar.
- They said, “We haven’t got a key.”
They said that they hadn’t got a key.
- They said, “We’re worried about Peter.”
They said that they were worried about Peter.
- Tom said. “I work in an office.”
Tom said that he worked in an office.
- The weatherman said, “It is going to rain.”
The weatherman said that it was going to rain.
- The motorists said, “We’re driving to a football match.”
The motorists said that they were driving to a football match.
- “I’ve won the lottery!” the old lady said.
The old lady said/exclaimed that she had won the lottery.
- Louise said, “My friends don’t like visiting museums.”
Louise said that her friends didn’t like visiting museums.
- People will have holidays in space in the future.
The young boy said that people would have holidays in space in the future.
- I broke my leg playing football.
James said that he had broken his leg playing football.
- We haven’t flown before.
They said that they hadn’t flown before.